MEDERE means in Latin “to cure”.
We create for you the best nutraceuticals on the market
Nature gives a lot to those who do want to understand it.
While developing Medere products we are inspired by the results of tests carried out in the best science labs in the world as well as by the centuries-old knowledge of diverse trends in traditional medicine. As a result, our products are based only on natural ingredients.
It is commonly known as „Dong Quai” and has been used in the traditional Chinese medicine to cure diseases of the cardiovascular system, mostly menstrual pains and anaemia. Because of its properties it is also called „female ginseng”. It boosts the blood coagulability and density. It can be used supportively by the patients after chemotherapy or treatment with harmful ionising radiation. Its roots contain such substances as limonene, β-caryophyllene, linalool or phellandrene that not only impact the cardiovascular system, but also protect the digestive system against damages. Besides, modern research has proved that Angelica shows antioxidant properties. This herb has been a basic ingredient used to prepare wonder drugs and mixtures such as a universal drug called Theriac – a salve used for all kinds of sores, or Carmelite water that was applied to improve the digestion as well as to soothe the nerves. Angelica has been known among the Nordic people and the Laplanders for ages. They were using baldachins of the herb and reindeer milk to produce a special sort of cheese. A common tradition was also consuming its stems, rhizomes and roots. The herb was highly valued because of the fact that it is one of the few edible plant species growing in the subpolar climate. Angelica sinensis has been chosen for Medere formula because of: high concentration of phytoestrogens that relieve menstrual and pre-menstrual pain, positive impact on digestion and neuroprotective functions.
Cho C.H. et al.: Study of the gastrointestinal protective effects of polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis in rats. Planta Medica 66.04 (2000): 348-351.
Sue‐Jing Wu, Lean‐Teik Ng, Chun‐Ching Lin: Antioxidant activities of some common ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine, Angelica sinensis, Lycium barbarum and Poria cocos. Phytotherapy Research 18.12 (2004): 1008-1012.
It is one of the most important herbs used in Ayurveda, the natural medicine of Ancient India. The plant has been also called „Queen of herbs” because of its rejuvenating properties boosting fertility, sexual functions and libido. Its unique composition is high in steroidal saponins called „shatavari” that are responsible for increasing the concentration of sex steroids, stimulating the growth of mammary glands and lactation. Its active ingredients also show antioxidant properties that lower the blood pressure, improve memory and cardiac muscle function. The potency of the herb confirmed by the results of clinical trials was approved by including it in British Pharmacopoeia. Shatavari (which means „she who possesses a hundred husbands”) stimulates sexual activity that was lowered as a consequence of stress, physical tiredness or insufficient immunity. It is also used as an aphrodisiac.
Shashi Alok et al.: Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari): a review. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2013, 3: 242-251.
Nishritha Bopana, Sanjay Saxena: Asparagus racemosus – Ethnopharmacological evaluation and conservation needs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2007, 110: 1-15.
Pahwa P., Goel R.: Ameliorative effect of Asparagus racemosus root extract against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling and associated depression and memory deficit. Epilepsy Behav. 2016;57: 196-201.
Garabadu D., Krishnamurthy S.: Asparagus racemosus attenuates anxiety-like behavior in experimental animal models. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2014; 34: 511-21.
This herb, also called „Huang Qi”, has been used in the traditional Chinese medicine for over 4000 years, being one of its 50 basic ingredients. It was approved by the European Food Safety Authority as a herb with anti-aging properties. Astragalus has a unique impact on our appearance. It has a rejuvenating and revitalising activity, improves our mood and provides energy. Astragalus membranaceus is the only plant-based substance that has been clinically proved to activate telomerase and to lengthen telomeres in aging cells of the immune system which protects their DNA against damages and mutations. The protection of telomeres against shortening improves the general vitality of human body, boosts the insulin sensitivity of tissues and prevents from osteoporosis and carcinogenesis. The root extracts are high in a lot of active ingredients such as triterpenes – also called astragalosides, that positively impact the carbohydrate metabolism (protection against diabetes mellitus) as well as the concentration of lipids (boosting their metabolism and weight loss) and adapt the body to increased physical activity neutralising the effects of tiredness and excessive stress. It is an excellent immunostimulant and antioxidant. It contains polysaccharides, saponins, flavonoids and glycosides, having a positive impact on the cardiovascular system.
Xiaolong Jiang et al.: Effects of treatment with Astragalus Membranaceus on function of rat leydig cells. BMC Compementary and Alterantive Medicine 2015, 15: 261-267.
Juan Fu et al.: Review of the botanical characteristics, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Astragalus membranaceus (Huangqi). Phytochemistry Research 2014, 28: 1275-1283.
Kojo Agyemang et al.: Recent advances in Astragalus membranaceus anti-diabetic research: pharmacological effects of its phytochemical constituents. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, Article ID 654643: 1-9.
Bernardes de Jesus B. et al.: The telomerase activator TA-65 elongates short telomeres and increases health span of adult/old mice without increasing cancer incidence. Aging Cell 2011; 10: 604-621.
Liu D. et al.: Cardioprotection activity and mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharide in vivo and in vitro. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018, 9: 35030-4.
It is an important herb that has been used in the Ayurvedic medicine of India for ages. Its activity was described for the first time in the 6th century AD in the writings of Charaka Saṃhitā, Atharva Ved and Sushruta Samhita as „Medhya Rasayana” – a rejuvenating herb which provides a clear and calm mind. It is an excellent specific to boost brain activity, improve logical thinking and deduction. Modern research has confirmed the neuroprotective and adaptogenic activity of the herb. It contains saponins called bacosides that are responsible for the function of the nervous system: improving the memory and concentration, stimulating the neurotransmission of dopamine and serotonin, increasing the blood flow in the brain, tolerating the anxiety states, inhibiting the inflammatory conditions and reducing the production of free radicals in the central nervous system. That is why Bacopy is often considered as a unique nootropic plant. Its strong antioxidant activity impacts the lengthening of dendrites – extensions of the nerve cells improving the communication between different areas of the brain and stimulating the hippocampus.
Sebastian Aguiar, Thomas Borowski: Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri. Rejunevation Research 2013, 16: 313-326.
Tamara Simpson et al.: Bacopa monnieri as an Antioxidant Therapy to Reduce Oxidative Stress in the Aging Brain. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2015, Article ID 615384, 1-9.
Rai D. et al.: Adaptogenic effect of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi). Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 75, 823-830 (2003).
Łojewski M., Muszyńska B., Sułkowska-Ziaja, K.: Bacopa monnieri L. Pennell – roślina o wielokierunkowym działaniu leczniczym. Postępy Fitoter. 2, 84-89 (2014).
Tea as a drink was discovered in China or in India. The consumption of tea leaves in form of a soup was mentioned for the first time in 2757 BC. The habit of drinking the aqueous solution of tea was popularised in Europe by the Dutch and the ritual of tea brewing imported from the Japanese became a British tradition. Because of the way how the tea leaves are processed we can distinguish red and yellow tea (partially fermented), black tea (completely fermented) and green tea with the best therapeutic properties, whose leaves are only stabilised with steam and dried. Green tea leaves are high in both valuable alkaloids (caffeine, theophyline and theobromine) and phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, gallic acid), proanthocyanidins as well as magnesium, potassium, aluminium and fluorine that decide about their unique properties. The ingredients are responsible for a range of healing properties: lowering the concentration of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, strong antioxidant and antidiabetic activity, protection against damages of skin collagen caused by sun exposure and indoor tanning as well as reduction of acne. The subject of numerous clinical studies was the ability of green tea ingredients to prevent from different types of carcinoma because of their strong anti-inflammatory and cell cycle inhibiting potential. In 2006 the American FDA agency approved Green tea as a pharmaceutical drug.
Rafieian-Kopaei M., Movahedi M.: Breast cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of Camellia Sinensis (green tea): an updated review. Electron Physician. 2017; 9: 3838-3844.
Eric W. et al.: Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of green, black and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis. Pharmacognosy Res. 2011; 3: 266-272.
Grove K., Lambert J.: Laboratory, Epidemiological, and Human Intervention Studies Show That Tea (Camellia sinensis) May Be Useful in the Prevention of Obesity. J Nutr. 2010; 140: 446-453.
Karthik K. et al.: Green tea (Camelia sinesis) and L-theanine: medicinal; values and beneficial application in human: a comprehensive review. Biomedicine and Phytotherapy 2017, 95: 1260-1275.
It is one of the most important herbs used in the Ayurvedic medicine of India and the traditional Chinese medicine. Its unique properties and high activity have been confirmed in European Pharmacopoeia. It shows anti-aging properties and positively impacts the brain function. It is used as a remedy neutralising the physical and mental exhaustion. Gotu Kola was traditionally used to speed up the process of wound healing. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-swelling activity. The substance contains saponins and glycosides that are responsible for antianxiety and antidepressant effects, which boost the regenerative process of nerve cells and improve their energy resources. It is used supportively in diabetes treatment, has antioxidant properties, shows cardioprotective, anticancer, antibacterial and antimycotic activity. The potency of Indian pennywort neutralises the aging symptoms of skin, restoring its elasticity (by increasing the synthesis of type I and III collagen) and firmness (by increasing the production of glycosaminoglycans). The extract of Centella asiatica also reduces the harmful effects of excessive free radicals and carbohydrates on skin metabolism inhibiting the formation of wrinkles.
Lokanathan Y. et al.: Recent updates in neuroprotective and neuroregenerative potential od Centella asiatica. Malays J Med Sci. 2016 Jan; 23(1): 4-14.
Chandrika U. et al.: Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica): Nutritional Properties and Plausible Health Benefits. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 2015, 76: 125-157.
Król D.: Wąkrota azjatycka (Centella asiatica L.) – właściwości lecznicze. Postępy Fitoterapii 2010, nr 2.
Sardar A. et al.: Phytochemical screening, GC-MS analysis and in vitro antioxidant activity of pollen of Centella asiatica (Linn) urban a traditional medicinal plant. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2017, 30: 2239-2245.
Puttarak P. et al.: Effects of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. on cognitive function and mood related outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 2017, 7: 10646.
It is a species of flowering plant of the family Ranunculaceae. It is native to North America and was already used as a medicinal plant by the Indians in the Pre-Columbian era. The knowledge about the plant was transferred to the first American settlers, who also highly valued its healing properties. The part of the plant that is mostly used in the herbal medicine is its rhizome. A species of the same family which occurs in Poland is Cimicifuga foetida, but it doesn’t have the same strong impact on the human body as the American varieties. The herb was used by the Indians as an effective drug against diseases of the urinary system and gynaecological disorders. Thanks to isoflavones that provide a perfect balance, it is commonly used as an ingredient of menopause formulas. Cytisine is a substance responsible for boosting both the respiratory and vasomotor centre of the brain. It also shows diastolic, soothing and expectorant properties. Modern research is focused on the effects of isoflavones contained in Cimicifuga. According to the test results this herb is able to reduce the production of LH and FSH hormones that are responsible for mood swings and hot flashes at the time of menopause. As a result it was confirmed that the preparations of this plant are very effective for women with strong and persistent climacteric symptoms.
Düker Eva-Maria et al.: Effects of extracts from Cimicifuga racemosa on gonadotropin release in menopausal women and ovariectomized rats. Planta medica 57.05 (1991): 420-424.
Frei-Kleiner S. et al.: Cimicifuga racemosa dried ethanolic extract in menopausal disorders: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Maturitas 51.4 (2005): 397-404.
It is an unusual fungus that can be found on the Tibetan Plateau and in the Himalayas. It was discovered while observing the yaks grassed on the plateau. It is known mostly because of its positive impact on physical strength and vigour. Cordycepin contained in the plant is responsible for improving sexual functions, boosting libido, increasing the physical activity, stimulating the immune system as well as the antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. The aqueous solution of Cordyceps improves the lung efficiency and oxygen utilisation (it boosts the adjustment of cells to lower oxygen concentration). It is also very effective by treatment of bronchitis, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It regulates the blood sugar concentration and boosts the synthesis of testosterone. Active ingredients of the fungus have anticancer properties that are still object of experiments. The secret of vitality and strength of the Asian warriors consuming Cordyceps depends on its ability to activate the key enzymes removing free radicals and stimulating sexual desire. According to experiments carried out on castrated rats and rats fed with a large amount of sugar, adding the extract of Cordyceps to their feed caused inhibition of the aging processes and restoring of the sex drive. Sportspeople who use the fungus as a dietary supplement, show an increased ability to long-lasting physical exercise because of a higher level of the energy substrate (ATP) in the muscles, whose ingredients are contained in Cordyceps. The healing properties of Cordyceps sinensis make it a kind of functional food with wide health-promoting effects. It is a nutraceutical mentioned in the European Novel food catalogue as a product that helps maintain health and prevents from diseases. American Academy of Science has considered Cordyceps sinensis to be a plant with medicinal potential.
Chen Y. et al.: Functional study of Cordyceps sinensis and cordycepin in male reproduction: A review. J Food Drug Anal. 2017; 25: 197-205.
Nakamura K. et al.: Anticancer and antimetastatic effects of cordycepin, an active component of Cordyceps sinensis. J Pharmacol Sci. 2015; 127: 53-6.
Singh K. et al.: Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2014; 76: 458-61.
Tuli H. et al.: Pharmacological and therapeutic potential of Cordyceps with special reference to Cordycepin. Biotech. 2014; 4: 1-12.
It was already known and highly valued in Ancient Egypt and Persia. Its healing properties were described in the Papyrus Ebers, a medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC, and were confirmed by modern clinical research. Crocus is one of the most expensive plant-based materials. To collect one pound of saffron we need about 75.000 flowers of the plant. Crocus is a source of numerous vitamins and microelements such as copper, potassium, selenium, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin C and folic acid. Crocetin, safranal, saffron and picrocrocin are the main volatile ingredients of Crocus among a total of 150 different ones that have been discovered so far. They decide about its specific taste, smell and healing properties. Active ingredients contained in Crocus are responsible for antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. They inhibit the development of diabetes, obesity and status asthmaticus. They also show natural anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects that can be compared with those of popular painkillers. Crocus stimulates the immune system, improves the microvasculature in the retina, boosts memory and concentration, has antianxiety and antidepressant effects, lowers blood pressure, stimulates sexual functions and slows down the aging processes.
Boskabady M.: Forkhohdeh Antiinflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of Crocus sativus and its main constituents. Phytother Res 2016, 30: 1072-1094.
Khazdair M. et al.: The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents on nervous system: A review. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2015 5: 376-391.
Bukhari S. et al.: A comprehensive review of the pharmacological potential of Crocus sativus and its bioactive apocarotenoids. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018, 98: 733-745.
Shafiee M. et al.: Saffron in the treatment of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders: Current evidence and potential mechanisms of action. J Affect Disord. 2017; 227: 330-337.
Samarghandian S. et al.: Immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects of saffron aqueous extract (Crocus sativus L.) on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Indian Heart J. 2017; 69: 151-159.
This plant is a part of the traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine. It is known for its anti-inflammatory activity while treating skin and liver diseases. It is one of the highest sources of natural resveratrol. Modern research has proved a broad spectrum of its pharmaceutical activity in connection with a high content of resveratrol which has anti-aging properties. Fallopia lowers the level of triglycerides and cholesterol facilitating weight loss. It has antibacterial, antimycotic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-swelling activity while treating liver diseases with a different aetiology. Emodin contained in the material boosts the estrogen receptors and piceid has strong antioxidant effects. Besides, emodin and physcion contained in Fallopia protect against both damages of beta cells in pancreatic islets and development of diabetes. They are also responsible for lowering the blood sugar level. Additionally, Polygonum cuspidatum is a high source of manganese, iron, copper as well as vitamin A and C.
Peng W. et al.: Botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and potential application of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb.et Zucc.: a review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 148: 729-45.
Peron G. et al.: Studying the effects of natural extracts with metabolomics: A longitudinal study on the supplementation of healthy rats with Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb.et Zucc. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2017 Jun 5; 140: 62-7.
Békési-Kallenberger H. et al. Comparative Histological and Phytochemical Study of Fallopia species. Nat Prod Commun. 2016, 11: 251-4.
Sohn E. et al.: Extract of Rhizoma Polygonum cuspidatum reduces early renal podocyte injury in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats and its active compound emodin inhibits methylglyoxalmediated glycation of proteins. Mol Med Rep. 2015, 12: 5837-45.
Reishi mushroom has been used in the traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine for 4000 years. In the most popular Chinese herbology „Bencao Gangmu” it is written: „A regular consumption of Ling Zhi reduces body weight and lengthens life”. In many Asian countries the plant is highly valued for its healing properties and called „mushroom of immortality”, „herb of spiritual potency”. It contains steroidal saponins with a structure similar to that of sex steroids, which are responsible for anticancer activity connected with inhibiting the division of mutated cells, their migration and adhesion to healthy tissue. They also stimulate the brain function and prevent from forming the new fat cells, which protects against obesity. Polysaccharides lower the blood pressure and the concentration of cholesterol, while peptides show a strong antioxidant activity. Besides, active ingredients of Ganoderma have strong anti-inflammatory and immunostimulant effects connected with the impact on T cells and B cells. Reishi mushroom is not only a highly valued food additive, but also an approved specific used in the anti-aging therapy. It lengthens life and neutralises the aging symptoms. According to experiments conducted on mice its regular consumption lengthened their lives by 9-20%, which refers to 7-16 years of human life.
Cheng S., Silva D.: Ganoderma lucidum for cancer treatment: we are close but still not there. Integrative Cancer Therapies 2015, 14: 249-247.
Cizmarikova M.: The Efficacy and Toxicity of Using the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes) and Its Products in Chemotherapy (Review). Int J Med Mushrooms. 2017; 19: 861-877.
Özevren H. et al.: Ganoderma Lucidum Protects Rat Brain Tissue Against Trauma-Induced Oxidative Stress. Korean J Neurotrauma. 2017; 13: 76-84.
Papp V. et al.: What Is Ganoderma lucidum in the Molecular Era? Int J Med Mushrooms. 2017; 19: 575-593.
This herb has been known in the traditional Chinese medicine („Tian Ma”) for many ages. Its tubers were used as an effective drug against migraine, epilepsy and headache. Modern research has proved a broad spectrum of its pharmaceutical activity: antianxiety and antidepressant effects, stimulation of neurotransmission in the brain, protection against the brain hypoxia, anti-inflammatory effects, improvement of the blood flow in cerebral cortex and of memory processes. The latest scientific research has shown that the mysterious Gastrodia tubers with lacking chlorophyll contain parishin that activates mTOR in the cells – a signal transduction responsible for lengthening life and neutralizing the effects of metabolic changes connected with aging.
Hong Dan Zhan et al.: The rhiozme of Gastrodia elata Blume – an ethnopharmacological review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2016, 189: 361-385.
Jung Hee Jang et al.: Neuropharmacological Potential of Gastrodia elata Blume and Its Components. Evidence-Based Complementary Alternative Medicine 2015, article ID 309261: 1-14.
Lin Y. et al.: Antidepressant-like effects of water extract of Gastrodia elata Blume on neurotrophic regulation in a chronic social defeat stress model. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017; 215: 132-139.
Kim M. et al.: Gastrodia elata Blume Rhizome Aqueous Extract Improves Arterial Thrombosis, Dyslipidemia, and Insulin Response in Testosterone-Deficient Rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017; 2017: 284857.
It is a special plant, one of the oldest plants on Earth, that was called „living fossil” by Charles Darwin, because its unique chemical composition let it survive 200 million years of evolution and climate changes. In Asia the plant has been known for 5000 years, whereas in Europe and in the United States it has been used only since 1960s. Ginkgo bilobae contains over 60 bioactive substances such as flavonoids, biflavonoids and terpenes, which are responsible for a specific profile of its pharmacological effects. Ginkgo bilobae shows a strong antioxidant activity, inhibits the aggregation of blood platelets, reduces the viscosity and improves the dynamic of blood flow in the peripheral vessels and brain. Its active ingredients impact the memory, concentration and learning ability. They are also responsible for protecting collagen and elastin against harmful modifications and degradation connected with the aging as well as against the formation of spider angioma. Scientific research on Ginkgo bilobae has explained the mechanism of the observed therapeutic effect: active ingredients of this plant are able to widen blood vessels, inhibit the platelet factors PF-1 – PF-4 essential for aggregation of platelets and efficiently remove the reactive oxygen species. Ginkgo bilobae is considered to be the best tested and the most often purchased medicinal plant worldwide. It is possible to use this plant in the supportive treatment of neoplastic diseases, traumatic brain injuries, anxiety states, depression or altitude sickness.
Tasiu I.: Rethinking Ginkgo biloba L.: Medicinal uses and conservation. Pharmacogn Rev. 2015; 9: 140-148.
Kevin M. et al.: Current Perspectives on the Beneficial Role of Ginkgo biloba in Neurological and Cerebrovascular Disorders. Integr Med Insights. 2015; 10: 1-9.
Bergman A. et al.: Therapeutic potential of resveratrol: a review of clinical trials. NPJ Preis Oncol 2-17, 11, 1-17.
Bhat J. et al.: Reveratrol supplementation improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutr Res 2012, 32, 537-541.
This herb, also called „Southern Ginseng”, has been known from the fifteenth-century descriptions as „immortality herb”. People from Southern China who drank daily Jiaogulan tea, maintained good health and lived up to a ripe old age, often up to more than 100 years. It contains 180 saponins called gypenosides, that are responsible for its healing properties. This five-leaved climbing vine symbolises five directions of pharmaceutical activity: antioxidant activity, stimulation of the immune system, protection of the liver, modulation of the cardiovascular system and enhancement of the physical activity. The longevity elixir of the Ming dynasty also improves the function of kidneys and respiratory system, protects against the tumours, diabetes, heart failure and adapts the human body to psychical and physical stress as well as to the environmental change.
Jun Wang et al.: Further new gypenosides from Jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum). J Agric Food Chem 2017, 65: 5926-5934.
Yantao Li et al.: Anti-cancer affercts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino (Jiaogulan). Chin Med 2016, 11: 43-67.
Shan Li-Na, Shi Yong-Xiu: Effect of Polysacharides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.), Makino on physical fatigue. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2014, 3: 112-117.
Keilhoff G. et al.: Gynostemma pentaphyllum is neuroprotective in a rat model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Exp Ther Med. 2017; 14: 6034-6046.
Hop is a plant that is mostly known as an ingredient for beer production. But for many ages it has been also used for various purposes in the natural medicine. One of its most popular activities is the relaxation of the body. The extract of hops impacts the receptors of the nervous system similarly to melatonin and serotonin. As a result, it can improve one’s mood and help regulate the sleep. Besides, the substance that occurs in the female hop plants (8-Prenylnaringenin) is one of the strongest phytoestrogens (substances like oestrogen coming from outside human endocrine system). Its impact and concentration in hops is high enough to influence even the hop-pickers. The phytoestrogen contained in the extract helps equal the oestrogen deficits at the time of menopause. The antioxidants contained in hops are very well absorbed and effective (nearly four times more effective than vitamin C). Besides, hops contain substances producing enzymes inhibiting angiogenesis. In the young bodies angiogenesis.is a process of producing the blood vessels, but in the adult bodies it is mostly a pathogenic process accompanying the cancerous changes (cancer cells expand the blood vessel networks around them).
Abourashed E.A., Koetter U., Brattström A.: In vitro binding experiments with a Valerian, hops and their fixed combination extract (Ze91019) to selected central nervous system receptors. Phytomedicine 11.7-8 (2004): 633-638.
Milligan S.R. et al.: Identification of a potent phytoestrogen in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 84.6 (1999): 2249-2249.
This herb is native to Poland, where it occurs naturally in Subcarpathia Province, but also to the whole of Europe and Western Asia. It has been used for medicinal purposes since the ancient times. In Ancient Rome it was mostly used as a seasoning added to stodgy food in order to improve the digestion. Inula was used as a cough medicine and in the Middle Ages as an ingredient of medicinal wine. The substances contained in the root of Inula (thymol, helenin, isoalatolaceton) have diuretic, anti-inflammatory and diastolic effects, especially on muscle cells of the digestive system. Because of its diuretic, anti-inflammatory and diastolic properties we have decided to include Inula in our formula. Additionally, the extract of Inula root has a strong antibacterial and antimycotic activity. The bactericidal properties of Inula are an interesting topic for the modern research. Inula has a special effect on the nervous system, different than the most of synthetic sedatives. It has not only a calming effect, but also strengthens and boosts the nervous system improving the concentration ability, that is often disrupted at the time of menopause.
Cantrell, Charles L., et al.: Antimycobacterial eudesmanolides from Inula helenium and Rudbeckia subtomentosa. Planta Medica 65.04 (1999): 351-355.
It is a natural chemical compound that commonly occurs in the brain, kidneys and muscles. It is a dipeptide derived from l-histidine and β-alanine. It was discovered and described in 1900 by the Russian scientist V. Gulewicz. In 1994 the other scientists McFarland and Holliday confirmed that carnosine has influence on the length of cells’ life. According to numerous studies carnosine has a multi-directional impact on the human body, slowing down and reversing the aging processes. It rejuvenates senescent cells, protects brain cells, inhibits the damages of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids with reactive oxygen species, prevents muscle tissue from acidification and degradation after physical effort and adapts the body to increased physical activity and strains. It is a popular ingredient of functional food for physically active people. It prevents from neurodegenerative diseases, is a strong antioxidant, improves the function of cardiovascular system, has an anticancer activity, improves the skin appearance, reduces wrinkles, boosts the physical strength and speeds up the muscle recovery. Besides, carnosine protects human tissues against modification and damage by advanced products of glycation, which reduces the risk of diabetes and atherosclerosis. Carnosine is one the most important nonprotein compounds in the human body, but its concentration systematically decreases after reaching 30 years of age. For this reason, it is desirable to maintain its concentration level, because it is one of the few substances that are critical for the life expectancy of human beings.
Reddy V. et al.: Carnosine: a versatile antioxidant and antiglycating agent. Sci Aging Known Environ 2005, 18: 1-6.
Stegen S. et al.: Plasma carnosine, but not muscle carnosine, attenuates high-fat diet-induced metabolic stress. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015; 40: 868-76.
Hipkiss A. et al.: Carnosine: can understanding its actions on energy metabolism and protein homeostasis inform its therapeutic potential? Chem Cent J. 2013; 7: 38.
Davinelli S. et al.: Synergistic effect of L-Carnosine and EGCG in the prevention of physiological brain aging. Curr Pharm Des. 2013; 19: 2722-7.
It is a vitamin-like chemical compound also called „elixir of youth”. It is indispensible and ever-present in each cell of the human body. It was discovered in 1957 by the English scientist Peter Mitchell, who was awarded the 1978 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his discovery. This substance has a key meaning for the energy production, growth, recovery and correct function of cells, tissues and the entire body. It is an excellent antioxidant, has anticancer and immunostimulant properties, impacts our strength, healthy appearance and aging processes. Without Coenzyme Q10 our skin cannot produce a sufficient amount of collagen, which is responsible for skin elasticity and firmness. Coenzyme Q10 neutralises the symptoms of mental fatigue, improves the physical strength and muscle power. It also boosts the cognitive processing, memory and neurotransmission. A regular supply of coenzyme is required especially by the crucial organs of the body such as heart or brain. A deficit of this substance can lead to serious diseases. Although the human body produces Coenzyme Q10, its amount decreases with age. The supplementation with ubiquinone helps both the skin cells and liver cells neutralise the toxins and effects of excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
Laredj L. et al.: The molecular genetics of coenzyme Q in biosynthesis in heath and disease. Biochemie 2014, 10: 78-87.
Manusco M. et al.: Coenzyme Q10 and neurological disease. Pharmaceuticals 2009, 2: 134-149.
Ruisinger J. et al.: Coenzyme Q10 for statin-associated myalgia. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2018; 75: 14-15.
Gholnari T. et al.: The Effects of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Glucose Metabolism, Lipid Profiles, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Am Coll Nutr. 2017, 7: 1-6.
It is a basic amino acid containing sulphur. It builds epidermal proteins, impacts the appearance of nails as well as the shine and structure of hair. It also creates the active sites of enzymes that regulate the metabolic rate. It is an ingredient of antioxidant glutathione, which protects both epidermal collagen and lipids against degradation and supports the detoxification activity of liver. L-Cysteine eliminates excessive mucus from the respiratory system by making it thinner, increases bone density and alleviates the symptoms of degenerative joint disease. Its ability to oxidise and bind metal ions helps the liver remove toxic metabolites, free radicals and heavy metal cations. Protecting „bad” LDL cholesterol against oxidation prevents from the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. This tiny amino acid builds youthful collagen and keratin – a strong protection of the liver, skin, bones and respiratory system.
Roderick N., Morton N.: Cysteine and hydrogen sulphide in the regulation of metabolism: insights from genetics and pharmacology. J Pathol. 2016, 238: 321-332.
Flurkey K. et al.: Life Extension by Diet Restriction and N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine in Genetically Heterogeneous Mice. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010; 65: 1275-1284.
Jain S. et al.: Vitamin D and L-cysteine levels correlate positively with GSH and negatively with insulin resistance levels in the blood of type 2 diabetic patients. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014; 68: 1148-1153.
Carter R., Morton N.: Cysteine and hydrogen sulphide in the regulation of metabolism: insights from genetics and pharmacology. J Pathol. 2016; 238: 321-332.
Magnolia is a plant belonging to Magnoliaceae family. It is a medium-size tree that occurs naturally in the forests of China at the height of over 2000 m above sea level. The Magnoliaceae family are one of the evolutionarily oldest flowering plants, including a wide range of species. The plant has been used by the mankind since the ancient times and according to some of the sources – even since the prehistoric times. Magnolia officinalis is the most popular variety of Magnolia tree used in the natural medicine. For thousands of years it has been used in the traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine as a drug with antidepressant and anti-stress properties that regulates the sleep-wake cycle.
Besides, it is used in Korea for diabetes treatment. Herbal mixtures contain mostly its bark or flowers. The subject of modern scientific research are tests on two substances that are the most active compounds of Magnolia: magnolol and honokiol. It has been proved that these substances have a noticeable antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Both magnolol and honokiol are unique substances which have a strong positive effect on the nervous system. Thanks to their composition they are able to cross the blood-brain barrier and impact the encephalon directly. The substances increase the sensitivity of brain receptors to acetylcholine and GABA acid, which makes them able to improve mood, have antianxiety and antidepressant properties as well as to relieve insomnia and excessive irritability. All effects mentioned above are important especially for women at the time of menopause, when the sensitivity of neurons to neurotransmitters such as GABA and acetylcholine decreases significantly.
Watanabe Kazuo et al.: Pharmacological properties of magnolol and hōnokiol extracted from Magnolia officinalis: central depressant effects. Planta medica 49.10 (1983): 103-108.
Ho Kun‐Yen et al.: Antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol isolated from Magnolia officinalis. Phytotherapy Research 15.2 (2001): 139-141.
Lo Yu-Chiang et al.: Magnolol and honokiol isolated from Magnolia officinalis protect rat heart mitochondria against lipid peroxidation. Biochemical pharmacology 47.3 (1994): 549-553.
It is the most important herb in the Far Eastern medicine that has been used for more than four thousand years. Ginseng is considered worldwide to be effective for treating any medical condition. That is why its common name is „panax” – a panacea to cure diseases of all kinds. It contains about two hundred active ingredients, the most important of which are ginsenosides. They improve mood as well as mental and physical health, boost the memory and thought processes, improve dynamics of the cardiac muscle preventing it from hypoxia, inhibit the aggregation of platelets, lower the concentration of blood sugar and lipids, modulate the activity of immune system, prevent from tiredness and fatigue, speed up recovery after the physical effort, boost metabolism and the activity of systemic enzymes, slow down the aging processes.
Kim J. et al.: Role of ginsenosides, the main active components of Panax ginseng, in inflammatory responses and diseases. J Ginseng Res. 2017, 41: 435-443.
Hyeong-Geug K. et al.: Antifatigue Effects of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. PLoS One. 2013; 8: e61271.
Sergiy O., Oh S.: Actoprotective effect of ginseng: improving mental and physical performance. J Ginseng Res. 2013 Apr; 37(2): 144-166.
Shishtar E. et al.: The Effect of Ginseng (The Genus Panax) on Glycemic Control: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials. PLoS One. 2014; 9: e107391.
It is a traditional specific used in the Ayurvedic medicine of India also known as Amla. It has been highly valued, because it effectively slows down the aging processes and is a high source of vitamin C. Active ingredients of Phyllanthus are responsible for an antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiviral and antibacterial activity. They also protect the liver against damages caused by medication. The specific provides protection to lipids and nucleic acids of cells, shows an analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity and can be used in the supportive treatment of various types of tumours. The secret of youth hidden in Indian gooseberry is that it inhibits the activity of collagenase and elastase, which degrade the connective tissue. As a result, it prevents from the loss of skin firmness and formation of wrinkles. Thanks to its high content of vitamin C (twenty times higher than in an orange) it is an effective antioxidant reducing the hyperpigmentation of skin.
Zeng Z. et al.: Structural characterization and biological activities of a novel polysaccharide from Phyllanthus emblica. Drug Discov Ther. 2017, 11: 54-63.
Tahir I. et al.: Phyllanthus emblica Evaluation of phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and amelioration of pulmonary fibrosis with Phyllanthus emblica leaves. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016, 24: 406.
Variya B. et al.: Emblica officinalis (Amla): A review for its phytochemistry, ethnomedicinal uses and medicinal potentials with respect to molecular mechanisms. Pharmacol Res. 2016; 111: 180-20.
Thirunavukkarasu M. et al.: Protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury: the role of PI3-kinase/glycogen synthase kinase 3β/β-catenin pathway. J Physiol Biochem. 2015; 71: 623-33.
It is one of 50 most significant herbs in the traditional Chinese medicine. It has been known for its positive effect on the memory and respiratory system function. Its synonymic Chinese name („great ambition”) reveals the impact of this herb on the intellectual potential and cognitive ability of the human brain. Modern research has proved its effect on associative processes, stress and depression relief as well as on improvement of the brain metabolism by using the same kind of mechanisms as the established nootropics that neutralise the aging processes of nerve cells. It has adaptogenic properties, which makes the body able to adapt faster to changing conditions and protect more easily against the negative effects of external factors. The extracts of Polygala are used in the treatment of insomnia, memory disorders and neurosis. Scientists explain the mechanism of these activities by its ability to boost the synthesis of nerve growth factor in the brain. Active ingredients of the herb are also valued as an expectorant which helps eliminate the inflammatory mucus from the respiratory system by common cold, rhinitis or rhinorrhoea. Thanks to its properties mentioned above Polygala is a valued plant-based specific with a great anti-aging potential.
Klein L. et al.: A pharmacognostic approach to the Polygala genus: phytochemical and pharmacological aspect. Chem Biodivers. 2012; 9: 181-209.
Zongyang Li et al.: Memory-Enhancing Effects of the Crude Extract of Polygala tenuifolia on Aged Mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014; 2014: 392324.
Kuboyama T. et al.: Polygalae Radix Extract Prevents Axonal Degeneration and Memory Deficits in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease. Front Pharmacol. 2017; 8: 805.
Qiu Y. et al.: Effects of the crude extract of Polygala tenuifolia Willd on human sperm in vitro. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2011; 12: 448-454.
It is a unique perennial flowering plant in the family Crassulaceae. It grows naturally mostly in the Arctic and mountain regions. It has had a long medicinal tradition in the Far East and in Siberia. It was discovered as a medicine by the Greek doctor Dioscorides. Ancient Greeks, Romans and Vikings were using it to overcome tiredness and improve their strength. Rhodiola rosea has been used for thousands of years. Modern research has confirmed its special properties thanks to a high content of organic compounds, such as flavonoids, chinones, phenols and alkaloids. It provides energy, improves mood, immunises the body against stress, relieves the nervous tension, improves the memory and concentration, boosts the learning ability, strengthens both the immune and cardiovascular system, and lengthens life. The extract of Rhodiola rosea given to a vinegar fly lengthened its life by 25%, which became an impetus to develop the research on the impact of the plant on vital processes and slowing down the aging symptoms. It is very popular with sportspeople as a natural and safe specific improving the physical strength and reducing the effects of altitude sickness. It shows an adaptogenic activity. The unique properties of Arctic root were used in the space program of the Soviet Union in 1960ies, as it was taken by the Soviet cosmonauts.
Sana Ishaque et al.: Rhodiola Rosea for physical and mental fatigue: a systematic review. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12: 70-79.
Panossian A. et al.: Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): Traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy. Phytomedicine 2010, 17: 481-493.
Duncan Michael, Clarke Neil: The effect of acute Rhodiola rosea ingestion on exercise heart rate, substrate utilisation, mood state and perceptions of exertion, arousal, and pleasure/displeasure in active men. Journal of Sports Medicine 2014, Article ID: 563043, 1-8.
Anghelescu I. et al.: Stress management and the role of Rhodiola rosea: a review. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2018; 11: 1-11.
It is one of the best tested „elixirs of youth”. It is an organic compound, a polyphenol in the group of flavonoids. It has been used for many ages. Scientists isolated it in 1963. It can be found e.g. in grapes, blueberries, raspberries, cranberries and red wine. It shows amazing properties: it activates the anti-aging SIRT1 gene – also called a longevity gene, reduces the activity of genes responsible for aging, is a strong antioxidant, has anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, anticancer and neuroprotective effects. In the first decade of the 21st century, Dr David Sinclair from Harvard University and his research team proved that resveratrol impacts the activity of sirtuins – proteins which inhibit the activity of genes responsible for aging. The antioxidant effect of resveratrol is nearly four times stronger than that of vitamin E and C. The interest in resveratrol is still increasing because of a wide range of its biological effects and health-promoting properties.
Bergman A. et al.: Therapeutic potential of resveratrol: a review of clinical trials. NPJ Preis Oncol 2-17, 11, 1-17.
Bhatt J. et al.: Resveratrol supplementation improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutr Res 2012, 32, 537-541.
Fernandes G. et al.: Epigenetic Regulatory Mechanisms Induced by Resveratrol. Nutrients. 2017; 9: 1201.
Chen W. et al.: Protective effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial function in the hippocampus improves inflammation-induced depressive-like behavior. Physiol Behav. 2017; 182: 54-6.
It has been grown for more than 3000 years. It was known in the medicine of the Maya and Aztec people. Hernán Cortés brought it to Europe. Because of unique properties the substance received its Greek name meaning „theo” = „godly, given by the god” and „broma” = „drink”. Modern research has proved that this substance has multi-directional cardioprotective effects. It also lowers the blood pressure and reduces the blood flow resistance. Besides, it is a strong antioxidant, which inhibits the buildup of atheromata and slows down the aging processes. The power of 380 active ingredients in the natural extract of cacao seeds improves mood, has activating and stimulating effects, improves sexual functions and shows an activity similar to that of aphrodisiacs, boosting the synthesis of endorphins – peptides of love. It is the only plant that contains Anandamid – a chemical compound produced naturally in the human body after a physical effort, which is responsible for our wellbeing. The extract of cacao seeds increases the concentration of magnesium, suppresses increased appetite, improves the micro-architecture of skin and eliminates the effects of excessive sun exposure. Professor Norman Hollenberg from Harvard Medical School and his research team studied the diet of the Kuna people from Panama. They discovered that the members of the tribe who consume 40 cups of cacao a week are less likely to get ill, live much longer than other natives of Panama and do not go down with dementia. The secret of medicinal properties of cacao is a flavonoid called epicatechin, which can be also found in tea and wine. The scientists are convinced that the unusual longevity and immunity to civilisation diseases (cardiovascular diseases, tumours, diabetes), which occurs at fewer than one out of ten people, is due to the daily consumption of cacao seeds.
Becker Kathrin et al.: Immunomodulatory properties of cacao extracts – potential consequences for medical application. Experimental Pharmacology and Drug Discovery 2013, 4: 1-9.
Yeyi G. et al. Dietary Cocoa Reduces Metabolic Endotoxemia and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High-Fat Fed Mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2014, 25: 439-445.
Cicero A. et al.: Botanicals and phytochemicals active on cognitive decline: The clinical evidence. Pharmacol Res. 2017, 28: 1043-66.
Ried K. et al.: Effect of cocoa on blood pressure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017, 25: 4: CD008893.
This herb has been known and used in the Ayurvedic medicine of India and in the natural Chinese medicine for thousands of years as a tonic with anti-aging properties, which boosts libido. Tribulus contains active ingredients such as: saponins, flavonoids, phytosterols that are responsible for improving physical and sexual potential, increase the physical strength and protect the liver and cardiovascular system. The herb also lowers the concentration of blood sugar, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and raises the concentration of sex steroids, dopamine and growth hormone – mediators typical for young tissues. It is used by sportspeople to increase their physical strength and muscle mass. It can naturally raise the level of anabolic hormones: testosterone and lutropin. The extract of Tribulus is often considered to be an elixir of youth and vitality, which reduces the body fat, prevents from osteoporosis and lowers the concentration of cholesterol. According to numerous scientific studies protodioscin contained in Tribulus has a reputation of being an aphrodisiac.
Wenyi Z. et al.: A review of traditional pharmacological uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological acitvities of Tribulus terrestris. Chemistry Central Journal 2017, 11: 60-73.
Wu Y. et al.: The function of androgen/androgen receptor and insulin growth factor1/insulin growth factor1 receptor on the effects of Tribulus terrestris extracts in rats undergoing high intensity exercise. Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16: 2931-2938.
Jiang Y. et al.: Vascular protective effects of aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris on hypertensive endothelial injury. Chin J Nat Med. 2017; 15: 606-614.
de Souza K. et al. : Efficacy of Tribulus terrestris for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Menopause. 2016; 23: 1252-125.
Red clover has been known in the traditional medicine as a herb which neutralises the common gynecological disorders e.g. connected with hormone balance or menstrual cycle. Modern research has confirmed the positive impact of red clover on eliminating the adverse effects of the menopause as well as other disorders caused by the lack of oestrogen. Isoflavones contained in red clover have a molecular structure that is similar to oestrogen, which allows them to join the receptors of this hormone and, as a result, to reduce the effects of its deficits at the time of menopause. Clinical trials have proved that taking isoflavones contained in this herb reduces the frequency of hot flashes caused by the menopause. Besides, the studies have confirmed its positive impact on bones mineralisation. Isoflavones contained in red clover significantly increase the density and mineralisation of long bones.
Occhiuto F. et al.: Effects of phytoestrogenic isoflavones from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) on experimental osteoporosis. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives 21.2 (2007): 130-134.
Thompson Coon Joanna, Pittler Max H., Ernst Edzard: Trifolium pratense isoflavones in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytomedicine 14.2-3 (2007): 153-159.
This plant has been used in the traditional medicine of India for 3000 years. Its common name is „Indian ginseng” due to a similar profile of their pharmacological activity. It is high in alkaloids and steroid compounds also called withanolides, that are responsible for a wide range of its pharmacological effects. So, its additional name – „somnifera”, which means „sleeping”, sounds quite contrary. It helps adapt to increased physical effort and strengthens the muscles. Besides, it protects against bacterial and viral infections, boosts the burning process of body fat and has a protective effect on the cardiac muscle. Numerous clinical studies have confirmed an anticancer and chemoprophylactic activity of the plant. Just as Astragalus membranaceus, it was approved by the European Food Safety Authority as a herb with anti-aging properties. Withania is a valuable adaptogenic herb, which helps the body eliminate toxins, relieves stress, tension and anxiety. Withania also speeds up recovery, rejuvenates, inhibits hair greying and revitalises the skin, neutralising the aging effects caused by free radicals and excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
Dushani Palliyaguru et al.: Withania somnifera: from prevention to treatment cancer. Mol Nutr Food Res 2016, 60: 1342-1353.
Pandey V. et al.: Withania somnifera: Advances and Implementation of Molecular and Tissue Culture Techniques to Enhance Its Application. Front Plant Sci 2017, 8: 1-11.
Kaur T., Kaur G.: Withania somnifera as a potential candidate to ameliorate high fat diet-induced anxiety and neuroinflammation. J Neuroinflammation. 2017; 14: 201.
Pradhan R. et al.: Longevity and healthy ageing genes FOXO3A and SIRT3: Serum protein marker and new road map to burst oxidative stress by Withania somnifera. Exp Gerontol. 2017; 95: 9-15.
It is the most important water-soluble vitamin, which has the function of a natural antioxidant (besides vitamin E) by eliminating free radicals produced as a result of excessive sun exposure, cigarette smoking, stress or hormonal disruption. Vitamin C participates in the modification process of collagen structure, which protects the skin against the formation of wrinkles and hyperpigmentation, and increases the absorption of ferric ions in the digestive tract. It is indispensable for the synthesis of adrenaline, dopamine and bile acids, which not only affects our activity and vitality, but also reduces the concentration of cholesterol in the body. Vitamin C also speeds up the wound healing and prevents from the formation of bruises and spider angioma. It strengthens the immunity, collagen, bones, tendons and skin.
Alexander J., Frei B.: Myths, Artifacts, and Fatal Flaws: Identifying Limitations and Opportunities in Vitamin C Research. Nutrients. 2013; 5: 5161-5192.
Harrison F. et al.: Ascorbic Acid and the Brain: Rationale for the Use against Cognitive Decline. Nutrients. 2014; 6: 1752-1781.
Du J. et al.: Ascorbic acid: Chemistry, biology and the treatment of cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta 2012; 1826: 443-457.
Paulsen G. et al.: Vitamin C and E supplementation hampers cellular adaptation to endurance training in humans: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. J Physiol. 2014; 592: 1887-1901.
Al-Niaimi F., Yi Zhen Chiang N.: Topical Vitamin C and the Skin: Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Applications. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2017; 10: 14-17.
This plant comes from the Mediterranean region and from Central Asia. It doesn’t occur naturally in Poland. In Ancient Greece it had a reputation of being a remedy for gynecological disorders. In the Middle Ages it became a symbol of purity and innocence. Its ground seeds were used in the monasteries as a seasoning lowering the men’s libido, that is why it was also called „monk’s pepper”. The extract of its fruits is known in the herbal medicine due to its positive impact on the regulation of both male and female sex hormones. As a result, it improves wellbeing, fertility and menstrual cycle. Ingredients contained in the fruits of Vitex have a strong regulating effect on hormonal disruption connected with prolactin. Besides, it also has properties affecting premenstrual symptoms such as menstrual pains or mood changes. Oils contained in the plant effectively eliminate the mental effects of menopause such as mood swings or depressive states. Substances contained in Vitex have a long-lasting effect, that is why it is necessary to take it regularly. The fruit of Vitex contains iridoid glycosides, flavones, diterpenoids as well as essential oils. The extract of Vitex selectively stimulates the dopamine receptors D2 in the lactotropic cells of the hypophysis and, as a result, it inhibits the secretion of prolactin. The prolactin hormone produced by lactotropic cells has a stimulating effect on the growth of mammary gland and the secretion of milk. It also activates the stereotypical maternity behaviours.
Chopin Lucks Barbara, Sørensen Janina, Veal Lowana: Vitex agnus-castus essential oil and menopausal balance: a self-care survey. Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery 8.3 (2002): 148-154.
Wuttke W. et al. : Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus) – pharmacology and clinical indications. Phytomedicine 10.4 (2003): 348-357.
Wuttke, W., et al. “Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus)–pharmacology and clinical indications.” Phytomedicine 10.4 (2003): 348-357.
Lucks, Barbara Chopin, Janina Sørensen, and Lowana Veal. “Vitex agnus-castus essential oil and menopausal balance: a self-care survey.” Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery 8.3 (2002): 148-154.